Oracle数据加载和卸载的实现方法

2019-01-02 14:58:15来源:作者:人点击

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在日常工作中;经常会遇到这样的需求:

  • Oracle 数据表跟文本或者文件格式进行交互;即将指定文件内容导入对应的 Oracle 数据表中;或者从 Oracle 数据表导出。
  • 其他数据库中的表跟Oracle数据库进行交互。

  若是少量数据;可选择的解决方案有很多。常用的用 Pl/SQL developer工具,或者手动转换为 INSERT 语句,或者通过API。但数据量大;用上面的方法效率太烂了。本文来说说 Oracle 数据的加载和卸载。

  • Oracle中的DBLINK
  • Oracle加载数据-外部表
  • Oracle加载数据-sqlldr工具
  • Oracle卸载数据-sqludr

一. Oracle 中的 DBLINK

  在日常工作中;会遇到不同的数据库进行数据对接;每个数据库都有着功能;像Oracle有 DBLINK ; PostgreSQL有外部表。

1.1 Oracle DBlink 语法

CREATE [PUBLIC] DATABASE LINK link
CONNECT TO username
IDENTIFIED BY password
USING 'connectstring'

1.2 Oracle To Mysql

  在oracle配置mysql数据库的dblink

二.Oracle加载数据-外部表

  ORACLE外部表用来存取数据库以外的文本文件(Text File)或ORACLE专属格式文件。因此,建立外部表时不会产生段、区、数据块等存储结构,只有与表相关的定义放在数据字典中。外部表,顾名思义,存储在数据库外面的表。当存取时才能从ORACLE专属格式文件中取得数据,外部表仅供查询,不能对外部表的内容进行修改(INSERT、UPDATE、DELETE操作)。不能对外部表建立索引。

2.1 创建外部表需要的目录

# 创建外部表需要的目录SQL> create or replace directory DUMP_DIR as '/data/ora_ext_lottu'; Directory created.# 给用户授予指定目录的操作权限SQL> GRANT READ,WRITE ON DIRECTORY DUMP_DIR TO lottu;Grant succeeded.

2.2 外部表源文件lottu.txt

10,ACCOUNTING,NEW YORK20,RESEARCH,DALLAS30,SALES,CHICAGO40,OPERATIONS,BOSTON

2.3 创建外部表

drop table dept_external purge;CREATE TABLE dept_external (  deptno   NUMBER(6),  dname   VARCHAR2(20),  loc    VARCHAR2(25) )ORGANIZATION EXTERNAL(TYPE oracle_loader DEFAULT DIRECTORY DUMP_DIR ACCESS PARAMETERS ( RECORDS DELIMITED BY newline BADFILE 'lottu.bad' LOGFILE 'lottu.log' FIELDS TERMINATED BY "," OPTIONALLY ENCLOSED BY '"' (  deptno   INTEGER EXTERNAL(6),  dname   CHAR(20),  loc    CHAR(25) ) ) LOCATION ('lottu.txt'))REJECT LIMIT UNLIMITED;

查看数据

SQL> select * from dept_external;  DEPTNO DNAME LOC---------- -------------------- ------------------------- 10 ACCOUNTING NEW YORK 20 RESEARCH DALLAS 30 SALES CHICAGO 40 OPERATIONS BOSTON

三. Oracle加载数据-sqlldr工具

3.1 准备实验对象

  创建文件lottu.txt;和表tbl_load_01。

[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ seq 1000|awk -vOFS="," '{print $1,"lottu",systime()-$1}' > lottu.txt[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ sqlplus lottu/li0924SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Mon Aug 13 22:58:34 2018Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved.Connected to:Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit ProductionWith the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing optionsSQL> create table tbl_load_01 (id number,name varchar2(10),accountid number);Table created.

3.2 创建控制文件lottu.ctl

load datacharacterset utf8    infile '/home/oracle/lottu.txt'    truncate into table tbl_load_01    fields terminated by ','    trailing nullcols optionally enclosed by ' ' TRAILING NULLCOLS( id , name, accountid)

3.3 执行sqlldr

[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ sqlldr 'lottu/"li0924"' control=/home/oracle/lottu.ctl log=/home/oracle/lottu.log bad=/home/oracle/lottu.badSQL*Loader: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Mon Aug 13 23:10:12 2018Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.Commit point reached - logical record count 64Commit point reached - logical record count 128Commit point reached - logical record count 192Commit point reached - logical record count 256Commit point reached - logical record count 320Commit point reached - logical record count 384Commit point reached - logical record count 448Commit point reached - logical record count 512Commit point reached - logical record count 576Commit point reached - logical record count 640Commit point reached - logical record count 704Commit point reached - logical record count 768Commit point reached - logical record count 832Commit point reached - logical record count 896Commit point reached - logical record count 960Commit point reached - logical record count 1000

四.Oracle卸载数据-sqludr

  sqludr是将Oracle数据表导出到文本中;是牛人楼方鑫开发的。并非Oracle自带工具;需要下载安装才能使用。

4.1 sqludr安装

[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ unzip sqluldr2linux64.zip Archive: sqluldr2linux64.zip inflating: sqluldr2linux64.bin   [oracle@oracle235 ~]$ mv sqluldr2linux64.bin $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqludr

4.2 查看sqludr帮助

[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ sqludr -?SQL*UnLoader: Fast Oracle Text Unloader (GZIP, Parallel), Release 4.0.1(@) Copyright Lou Fangxin (AnySQL.net) 2004 - 2010, all rights reserved.License: Free for non-commercial useage, else 100 USD per server.Usage: SQLULDR2 keyword=value [,keyword=value,...]Valid Keywords:  user  = username/password@tnsname  sql   = SQL file name  query  = select statement  field  = separator string between fields  record = separator string between records  rows  = print progress for every given rows (default, 1000000)   file  = output file name(default: uldrdata.txt)  log   = log file name, prefix with + to append mode  fast  = auto tuning the session level parameters(YES)  text  = output type (MYSQL, CSV, MYSQLINS, ORACLEINS, FORM, SEARCH).  charset = character set name of the target database.  ncharset= national character set name of the target database.  parfile = read command option from parameter file  for field and record, you can use '0x' to specify hex character code, /r=0x0d /n=0x0a |=0x7c ,=0x2c, /t=0x09, :=0x3a, #=0x23, "=0x22 '=0x27

4.3 执行sqludr

[oracle@oracle235 ~]$ sqludr lottu/li0924 query="tbl_load_01" file=lottu01.txt field=","      0 rows exported at 2018-08-13 23:47:55, size 0 MB.    1000 rows exported at 2018-08-13 23:47:55, size 0 MB.     output file lottu01.txt closed at 1000 rows, size 0 MB.

总结

以上所述是小编给大家介绍的Oracle数据加载和卸载的实现方法,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的。在此也非常感谢大家对明升m88.com网站的支持!

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